- 1As a result of the 2020 population census, the national average district size will be equal to the total population of the 50 states (331,108,434) divided by 435.
- 2Source: OpenSecrets.org.
- 3According to OpenSecrets.org’s Incumbent Advantage page, for the 2019-2020 election cycle, 407 incumbents seeking reelection were able to raise over $2.7 million each (on average). In contrast, 1,141 challengers were only able to raise $418 each (on average).
- 4“Years in office” is the average continuous tenure in office of all Representatives who comprise each of the first 108 Congresses regardless of the reason they left office (e.g., defeat, retirement, death); the dashed line indicates the underlying trend. Tenure data is preferred to reelection rates because it is highly reliable across all periods of time.
- 5Also see “Constituency Size and Incumbent Safety: A Reexamination” by Edward L. Lascher (Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 2. (Jun., 2005), pp. 269-278.
- 6A similar point is made in “Constituency Size and Incumbent Safety: A Reexamination”, Edward L. Lascher,
Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 58, No. 2. (Jun., 2005), pp. 269-278.
- 7In 1789, the first congress proposed that the average population size of congressional districts be no larger than 50,000 to complement the average minimum size of 30,000 specified in the Constitution (as explained in Section 1). Consequently, Thirty-Thousand.org uses 50,000 to illustrate the concept of true citizen representation.
- 8Brookings.edu: “Five Reasons to oppose congressional term limits”.
- 9Though a small and oligarchic House of Representatives would never propose such an amendment, it is very likely that it would be proposed by an Article V Convention of States (which is not the same thing as a “constitutional convention”).